||This work was designed to identify yeast cellular functions specifically affected by the stress factors predominating during the early stages of wine fermentation, and genes required for optimal growth under these conditions. The main experimental method was quantitative fitness analysis by means of competition experiments in continuous culture of whole genome barcoded yeast knockout collections. This methodology allowed the identification of haploinsufficient genes, and homozygous deletions resulting in growth impairment in synthetic must. However, genes identified as haploproficient, or homozygous deletions resulting in fitness advantage, were of little predictive power concerning optimal growth in this medium. The relevance of these functions for enological performance of yeast was assessed in batch cultures with single strains. Previous studies addressing yeast adaptation to winemaking conditions by quantitative fitness analysis were not specifically focused on the proliferative stages. In some instances our results highlight the importance of genes not previously linked to winemaking. In other cases they are complementary to those reported in previous studies concerning, for example, the relevance of some genes involved in vacuolar, peroxisomal, or ribosomal functions. Our results indicate that adaptation to the quickly changing growth conditions during grape must fermentation require the function of different gene sets in different moments of the process. Transport processes and glucose signaling seem to be negatively affected by the stress factors encountered by yeast in synthetic must. Vacuolar activity is important for continued growth during the transition to stationary phase. Finally, reduced biogenesis of peroxisomes also seems to be advantageous. However, in contrast to what was described for later stages, reduced protein synthesis is not advantageous for the early (proliferative) stages of the fermentation process. Finally, we found adenine and lysine to be in short supply for yeast growth in some natural grape musts.