||The yeast Sln1p sensor kinase is best known as an osmosensor involved in the regulation of the hyperosmolarity glycerol mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Down-regulation of Sln1 kinase activity occurs under hypertonic conditions and leads to phosphorylation of the Hog1p mitogen-activated protein kinase and increased osmotic stress-response gene expression. Conditions leading to kinase up-regulation include osmotic imbalance caused by glycerol retention in the glycerol channel mutant, fps1 (Tao, W., Deschenes, R. J., and Fassler, J. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 360-367). The hypothesis that Sln1p kinase activity is responsive to turgor was first suggested by the increased Sln1p kinase activity in mutants lacking Fps1p in which glycerol accumulation leads to water uptake. Also consistent with the turgor hypothesis is the observation that reduced turgor caused by treatment of cells with nystatin, a drug that increases membrane permeability and causes cell shrinkage, reduced Sln1p kinase activity (Tao, W., Deschenes, R. J., and Fassler, J. S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 360-367; Reiser, V., Raitt, D. C., and Saito, H. (2003) J. Cell Biol. 161, 1035-1040). The turgor hypothesis is revisited here in the context of the identification and characterization of the cell wall gene, CCW12, as a determinant of Sln1p activity. Results of this analysis suggest that the activity of the plasma membrane localized Sln1p is affected by the presence or absence of specific outer cell wall proteins and that this effect is independent of turgor.