||Daniela Delneri, David C Hoyle, Konstantinos Gkargkas, Emma J M Cross, Bharat Rash, Leo Zeef, Hui-Sun Leong, Hazel M Davey, Andrew Hayes, Douglas B Kell, Gareth W Griffith, Stephen G Oliver
||Using competition experiments in continuous cultures grown in different nutrient environments (glucose limited, ammonium limited, phosphate limited and white grape juice), we identified genes that show haploinsufficiency phenotypes (reduced growth rate when hemizygous) or haploproficiency phenotypes (increased growth rate when hemizygous). Haploproficient genes (815, 1,194, 733 and 654 in glucose-limited, ammonium-limited, phosphate-limited and white grape juice environments, respectively) frequently show that phenotype in a specific environmental context. For instance, genes encoding components of the ubiquitination pathway or the proteasome show haploproficiency in nitrogen-limited conditions where protein conservation may be beneficial. Haploinsufficiency is more likely to be observed in all environments, as is the case with genes determining polar growth of the cell. Haploproficient genes seem randomly distributed in the genome, whereas haploinsufficient genes (685, 765, 1,277 and 217 in glucose-limited, ammonium-limited, phosphate-limited and white grape juice environments, respectively) are over-represented on chromosome III. This chromosome determines a yeast's mating type, and the concentration of haploinsufficient genes there may be a mechanism to prevent its loss.