The impact of the genetic background on gene deletion phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Marco Galardini, Bede P Busby, Cristina Vieitez, Alistair S Dunham, Athanasios Typas, Pedro Beltrao
Loss-of-function (LoF) mutations associated with disease do not manifest equally in different individuals. The impact of the genetic background on the consequences of LoF mutations remains poorly characterized. Here, we systematically assessed the changes in gene deletion phenotypes for 3,786 gene knockouts in four Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and 38 conditions. We observed 18.5% of deletion phenotypes changing between pairs of strains on average with a small fraction conserved in all four strains. Conditions causing higher wild-type growth differences and the deletion of pleiotropic genes showed above-average changes in phenotypes. In addition, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for growth under the same conditions for a panel of 925 yeast isolates. Gene-condition associations derived from GWAS were not enriched for genes with deletion phenotypes under the same conditions. However, cases where the results were congruent indicate the most likely mechanism underlying the GWAS signal. Overall, these results show a high degree of genetic background dependencies for LoF phenotypes.
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