||Catarina Costa, Andreia Ponte, Pedro Pais, Rui Santos, Mafalda Cavalheiro, Takashi Yaguchi, Hiroji Chibana, Miguel Cacho Teixeira
||5-Flucytosine is currently used as an antifungal drug in combination therapy, but fungal pathogens are rapidly able to develop resistance against this drug, compromising its therapeutic action. The understanding of the underlying resistance mechanisms is crucial to deal with this problem. In this work, the S. cerevisiae deletion mutant collection was screened for increased resistance to flucytosine. Through this chemogenomics analysis, 183 genes were found to confer resistance to this antifungal agent. Consistent with its known effect in DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, the most significant Gene Ontology terms over-represented in the list of 5-flucytosine resistance determinants are related to DNA repair, RNA and protein metabolism. Additional functional classes include carbohydrate and nitrogen-particularly arginine-metabolism, lipid metabolism and cell wall remodeling. Based on the results obtained for S. cerevisiae as a model system, further studies were conducted in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. Arginine supplementation was found to relieve the inhibitory effect exerted by 5-flucytosine in C. glabrata. Lyticase susceptibility was found to increase within the first 30min of 5-flucytosine exposure, suggesting this antifungal drug to act as a cell wall damaging agent. Upon exponential growth resumption in the presence of 5-flucytosine, the cell wall exhibited higher resistance to lyticase, suggesting that cell wall remodeling occurs in response to 5-flucytosine. Additionally, the aquaglyceroporin encoding genes CgFPS1 and CgFPS2, from C. glabrata, were identified as determinants of 5-flucytosine resistance. CgFPS1 and CgFPS2 were found to mediate 5-flucytosine resistance, by decreasing 5-flucytosine accumulation in C. glabrata cells.